Translation and Transliteration
Tomb of the two brothers, Khnum-Nakht and Nekht-Ankh

Body Coffins
Note 1 - Hieroglyph are presented vertically and centrally on the front of each coffin
Note 2 - Khnum was worshiped as the Ba of Osiris at Shas-Hetep (close to the modern day Asyut)
Canopic Chest, Nekht-Ankh

Canopic Jars, Nekht-Ankh

Canopic Jars of Nekht-Ankh


Canopic jars are protected by the four sons of Horus, said to be the children and also the 'souls' of Horus. They are also called the 'friends of the king' and assist the deceased monarch in ascending into the sky. Their afterlife mythology led to important roles in the funerary assemblage, particularly in association with canopic jars.
Each deity was guarded by one of the funerary goddesses, though there was some variation in this linkage. The group may have been based on the symbolic completeness of the number four alone, but they are often given geographic associations and hence became a kind of regional group. 
The four gods were the:
1. human-headed Imseti who guarded liver (guarded by the goddess Isis)
2. baboon-headed Hapy who guarded lungs (protected by the goddess Nephthys)
3. jackal-headed Duamutef who guarded stomach (often protected by the goddess Neith)
4. falcon-headed Qebesenuef, guardian of intestines (often protected by the goddess Serket). Serket's full title is Serket Hetyt which is translated as 'she who causes the throat to breath' a euphemistic reference to the deadly scorpion. The word throat (Htyt) is represented by the Gardiner F10 symbol (reference Pam Scott, 2006).
The four gods were sometimes depicted on the sides of the canopic chest and had specific symbolic orientations, with:
1. Imseti aligned with the south
2. Hapy with the north
3. Duamutef with the east
4. Qebesenuef with the west
They were also depicted on the long sides of coffins and sarcophagi with:
1. Hapy and Qebesenuef being placed on the west side
2. Imseti and Duamutef were placed on the east
Before the 18th Dynasty canopic jars were given human headed stoppers and from the 18th Dynasty they were given the more characteristic representation or human, jackal, hawk and baboon.
Main page of the The Two Brothers Khnum-Nakht and Nekht-Ankh
Excavation by W M Flinders Petrie at Der Rifeh

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